Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Subconjunctival triamcinolone acetonide in the management of ocular inflammatory disease.

PMID 23485045


To review the existing evidence that supports the subconjunctival use of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in the treatment of various ophthalmic diseases. A literature search was performed for published articles about the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic characteristics of triamcinolone, as well as its potential ophthalmic use, focused mainly in the subconjunctival mode of delivery. Search terms included corticosteroids, triamcinolone, ocular, subconjunctival, and ophthalmic. Corticosteroids represent the mainstay of treatment of ocular inflammation, exerting their action by affecting multiple pathways of the inflammatory response, making them particularly effective in the majority of cases. However, due to the number and severity of the side effects associated with their use, they have to be given with caution. Corticosteroids can be given topically, subconjunctivally, intraocularly, and systemically to treat a variety of ocular diseases with specific pharmacological and PK characteristics. Triamcinolone is one of the most widely used corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular inflammation. This glucocorticoid used subconjunctivally was proven to be particularly safe and effective in some common and important inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as anterior scleritis, uveitis, and corneal graft rejection. Further, there are other indications for its successful use where data exist, but somehow less abundant. This article highlights the potential of TA to complement the treatment armamentarium of anterior segment inflammation.