Leukemia research

Azacitidine in the treatment of therapy related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (tMDS/AML): a report on 54 patients by the Groupe Francophone Des Myelodysplasies (GFM).

PMID 23499498


The effect of azacitidine (AZA) in therapy related MDS and AML (t-MDS/AML) is not well established. 54 patients (42 t-MDS and 12 t-AML), 71% of whom had complex karyotype, received AZA for at least one cycle (median 4 cycles). The overall response rate (ORR) was 39% in the whole cohort and 62% in patients who received ≥4 cycles. One, 2 and 3 year OS was 36%, 14% and 8% respectively. Female gender (p=0.01) and ECOG 0-1 (p=0.04) were associated with significantly better OS, while karyotype and marrow blast percentage had no significant impact. By comparison with de novo MDS/AML treated in the same program, t-MDS/AML had a similar response rate (38% vs 45% in de novo MDS/AML, p=0.53), but significantly shorter OS (2 year OS of 14% vs 33.9%, p=0.0005). However, in a multivariate analysis performed in all patients (de novo and therapy related cases), only complex karyotype and high IPSS, and not etiology (i.e. de novo versus therapy related), had a significant impact on OS. Nine (15%) patients received allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 4 of whom were still alive.