Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

The protective role of l-carnitine against cylindrospermopsin-induced oxidative stress in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

PMID 23501490


Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is one of the most important cyanotoxins in terms of both human health and environmental quality and is produced by several different species of cyanobacteria, including Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. The principal mechanisms of action of CYN involve inhibition of protein and glutathione synthesis. In addition, CYN-mediated genotoxicity results from DNA fragmentation. The results of both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that oxidative stress also plays a significant role in CYN pathogenesis in fish. We investigated the protective effects of l-carnitine (LC) pre-treatment on A. ovalisporum-induced oxidative stress in cells containing CYN and deoxy-CYN, or pure standard CYN, in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that had been acutely exposed via oral administration. Various oxidative stress markers, including lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation, DNA oxidation, and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), were evaluated in the livers and kidneys of fish in the absence and presence of 400 or 880mgLC/kgfish/day during a 21 day period prior to CYN-intoxication. The results of our study demonstrated for the first time the beneficial antioxidant effects of LC dietary supplementation on oxidative stress status in fish. No pro-oxidant effects were detected at any of the LC doses assayed, suggesting that LC is a chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress and may be effective when used for the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxication in fish.