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Investigative radiology

Optimization of dual-energy xenon-computed tomography for quantitative assessment of regional pulmonary ventilation.


PMID 23571834

Abstract

Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) offers visualization of the airways and quantitation of regional pulmonary ventilation using a single breath of inhaled xenon gas. In this study, we sought to optimize scanning protocols for DECT xenon gas ventilation imaging of the airways and lung parenchyma and to characterize the quantitative nature of the developed protocols through a series of test-object and animal studies. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved all animal studies reported here. A range of xenon/oxygen gas mixtures (0%, 20%, 25%, 33%, 50%, 66%, 100%; balance oxygen) were scanned in syringes and balloon test-objects to optimize the delivered gas mixture for assessment of regional ventilation while allowing for the development of improved 3-material decomposition calibration parameters. In addition, to alleviate gravitational effects on xenon gas distribution, we replaced a portion of the oxygen in the xenon/oxygen gas mixture with helium and compared gas distributions in a rapid-prototyped human central-airway test-object. Additional syringe tests were performed to determine if the introduction of helium had any effect on xenon quantitation. Xenon gas mixtures were delivered to anesthetized swine to assess airway and lung parenchymal opacification while evaluating various DECT scan acquisition settings. Attenuation curves for xenon were obtained from the syringe test-objects and were used to develop improved 3-material decomposition parameters (Hounsfield unit enhancement per percentage xenon: within the chest phantom, 2.25 at 80 kVp, 1.7 at 100 kVp, and 0.76 at 140 kVp with tin filtration; in open air, 2.5 at 80 kVp, 1.95 at 100 kVp, and 0.81 at 140 kVp with tin filtration). The addition of helium improved the distribution of xenon gas to the gravitationally nondependent portion of the airway tree test-object, while not affecting the quantitation of xenon in the 3-material decomposition DECT. The mixture 40% Xe/40% He/20% O2 provided good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), greater than the Rose criterion (SNR > 5), while avoiding gravitational effects of similar concentrations of xenon in a 60% O2 mixture. Compared with 100/140 Sn kVp, 80/140 Sn kVp (Sn = tin filtered) provided improved SNR in a swine with an equivalent thoracic transverse density to a human subject with a body mass index of 33 kg/m. Airways were brighter in the 80/140 Sn kVp scan (80/140 Sn, 31.6%; 100/140 Sn, 25.1%) with considerably lower noise (80/140 Sn, coefficient of variation of 0.140; 100/140 Sn, coefficient of variation of 0.216). To provide a truly quantitative measure of regional lung function with xenon-DECT, the basic protocols and parameter calibrations need to be better understood and quantified. It is critically important to understand the fundamentals of new techniques to allow for proper implementation and interpretation of their results before widespread usage. With the use of an in-house derived xenon calibration curve for 3-material decomposition rather than the scanner supplied calibration and a xenon/helium/oxygen mixture, we demonstrate highly accurate quantitation of xenon gas volumes and avoid gravitational effects on gas distribution. This study provides a foundation for other researchers to use and test these methods with the goal of clinical translation.

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00472
Xenon, ≥99.995%
Xe