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Journal of cellular biochemistry

Metabolic stability of 3-epi-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 over 1 α 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: metabolism and molecular docking studies using rat CYP24A1.


PMID 23606409

Abstract

3-epi-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3), a natural metabolite of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), exhibits potent vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated actions such as inhibition of keratinocyte growth or suppression of parathyroid hormone secretion. These VDR-mediated actions of 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3 needed an explanation as 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3, unlike 1α,25(OH)2D3, exhibits low affinity towards VDR. Metabolic stability of 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3 over 1α,25(OH)2D3 has been hypothesized as a possible explanation. To provide further support for this hypothesis, we now performed comparative metabolism studies between 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 using both the technique of isolated rat kidney perfusion and purified rat CYP24A1 in a cell-free reconstituted system. For the first time, these studies resulted in the isolation and identification of 3-epi-calcitroic acid as the final inactive metabolite of 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3 produced by rat CYP24A1. Furthermore, under identical experimental conditions, it was noted that the amount of 3-epi-calcitroic acid produced from 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3 is threefold less than that of calcitroic acid, the analogous final inactive metabolite produced from 1α,25(OH)2D3 . This key observation finally led us to conclude that the rate of overall side-chain oxidation of 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3 by rat CYP24A1 leading to its final inactivation is slower than that of 1α,25(OH)2D3. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this important finding, we performed a molecular docking analysis using the crystal structure of rat CYP24A1. Docking results suggest that 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3, unlike 1α,25(OH)2D3, binds to CYP24A1 in an alternate configuration that destabilizes the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex sufficiently to slow the rate at which 3-epi-1α,25(OH)2D3 is inactivated by CYP24A1 through its metabolism into 3-epi-calcitroic acid.

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