Circulation research

Adenylyl cyclase subtype-specific compartmentalization: differential regulation of L-type Ca2+ current in ventricular myocytes.

PMID 23609114


Adenylyl cyclase (AC) represents one of the principal molecules in the β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway, responsible for the conversion of ATP to the second messenger, cAMP. AC types 5 (ACV) and 6 (ACVI) are the 2 main isoforms in the heart. Although highly homologous in sequence, these 2 proteins play different roles during the development of heart failure. Caveolin-3 is a scaffolding protein, integrating many intracellular signaling molecules in specialized areas called caveolae. In cardiomyocytes, caveolin is located predominantly along invaginations of the cell membrane known as t-tubules. We take advantage of ACV and ACVI knockout mouse models to test the hypothesis that there is distinct compartmentalization of these isoforms in ventricular myocytes. We demonstrate that ACV and ACVI isoforms exhibit distinct subcellular localization. The ACVI isoform is localized in the plasma membrane outside the t-tubular region and is responsible for β1-adrenergic receptor signaling-mediated enhancement of the L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) in ventricular myocytes. In contrast, the ACV isoform is localized mainly in the t-tubular region where its influence on ICa,L is restricted by phosphodiesterase. We further demonstrate that the interaction between caveolin-3 with ACV and phosphodiesterase is responsible for the compartmentalization of ACV signaling. Our results provide new insights into the compartmentalization of the 2 AC isoforms in the regulation of ICa,L in ventricular myocytes. Because caveolae are found in most mammalian cells, the mechanism of β- adrenergic receptor and AC compartmentalization may also be important for β-adrenergic receptor signaling in other cell types.