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The Journal of biological chemistry

Phosphorylation of serine 1137/1138 of mouse insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 2 regulates cAMP-dependent binding to 14-3-3 proteins and IRS2 protein degradation.


PMID 23615913

Abstract

Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 2 as intermediate docking platform transduces the insulin/IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor 1) signal to intracellular effector molecules that regulate glucose homeostasis, β-cell growth, and survival. Previously, IRS2 has been identified as a 14-3-3 interaction protein. 14-3-3 proteins can bind their target proteins via phosphorylated serine/threonine residues located within distinct motifs. In this study the binding of 14-3-3 to IRS2 upon stimulation with forskolin or the cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP was demonstrated in HEK293 cells. Binding was reduced with PKA inhibitors H89 or Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Phosphorylation of IRS2 on PKA consensus motifs was induced by forskolin and the PKA activator N(6)-Phe-cAMP and prevented by both PKA inhibitors. The amino acid region after position 952 on IRS2 was identified as the 14-3-3 binding region by GST-14-3-3 pulldown assays. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed serine 1137 and serine 1138 as cAMP-dependent, potential PKA phosphorylation sites. Mutation of serine 1137/1138 to alanine strongly reduced the cAMP-dependent 14-3-3 binding. Application of cycloheximide revealed that forskolin enhanced IRS2 protein stability in HEK293 cells stably expressing IRS2 as well as in primary hepatocytes. Stimulation with forskolin did not increase protein stability either in the presence of a 14-3-3 antagonist or in the double 1137/1138 alanine mutant. Thus the reduced IRS2 protein degradation was dependent on the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and the presence of serine 1137/1138. We present serine 1137/1138 as novel cAMP-dependent phosphorylation sites on IRS2 and show their importance in 14-3-3 binding and IRS2 protein stability.

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Anti-IRS-2 Antibody, clone 9.5.2, clone 9.5.2, from mouse