Translational stroke research

Hyperglycemia alters mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins in mice subjected to cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.

PMID 23626658


Preischemic hyperglycemia exacerbates brain damage caused by cerebral ischemia. In the present experiment, we studied the effects of preischemic hyperglycemia on protein markers that are related to mitochondrial fission and fusion, mitochondrial biogenesis, and autophagy in mice subjected to 30-min transient focal ischemia. The fission proteins dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and fission 1 (Fis1), fusion proteins optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), mitochondrial biogenesis regulators nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and autophagy marker beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) were analyzed in control, 30 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) plus 6-, 24-, and 72 h of reperfusion in normo- and hyperglycemic conditions. Cerebral ischemia increased the levels of Drp1 and decreased Fis1 after reperfusion. Preischemic hyperglycemia further augmented the increase of Drp1 and induced elevation in Fis1. Ischemia inhibited the levels of Opa1 and Mfn2 and hyperglycemia further decreased the level of Opa1. Further, NRF1 increased after reperfusion in both normo- and hyperglycemic animals. However, such increase was caused by reperfusion rather than glucose level. Finally, ischemia increased beclin 1 level at 6 and 24 h of reperfusion and hyperglycemia further increased the beclin 1 level and caused LC3-II increase as well. Hyperglycemia enhances the ischemia-induced mitochondrial dynamic imbalance towards fission that may favor mitochondrial fragmentation and subsequent damage. Hyperglycemia elevated autophagy markers may represent an adapting reaction to the severe damage incurred in hyperglycemic animals or a third pathway of cell death.