American journal of clinical oncology

Lenalidomide for second-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular cancer: a Brown University oncology group phase II study.

PMID 23648434


To assess the activity and toxicity of lenalidomide for patients with advanced hepatocellular cancer (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. Patients with advanced HCC who progressed on or were intolerant to sorafenib were eligible. Patients received lenalidomide 25 mg orally for 1 to 21 days in a 28-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicities. Forty patients were enrolled and were classified according to the Child-Pugh score: 19 were Child-Pugh A, 16 patients were Child-Pugh B, and 5 were Child-Pugh C. Seventeen patients had extrahepatic disease. Grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 1 of 40 patients (2.5%). Grade 3 fatigue (n=3) and rash (n=4) were the most common nonhematologic toxicities attributable to lenalidomide. Six of 40 patients (15%) had a partial response. Two patients (5%) have not progressed at 36 and 32 months. The median progression-free survival was 3.6 months and the median overall survival was 7.6 months. Lenalidomide can be administered to patients with advanced HCC and hepatic dysfunction. Promising, and in a small percentage of patients, durable activity has been demonstrated. Investigations are needed to explore the mechanism of action of lenalidomide in HCC.