EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Critical reviews in toxicology

A review of the health hazards posed by cobalt.


PMID 23656559

Abstract

Cobalt (Co) is an essential element with ubiquitous dietary exposure and possible incremental exposure due to dietary supplements, occupation and medical devices. Adverse health effects, such as cardiomyopathy and vision or hearing impairment, were reported at peak blood Co concentrations typically over 700 µg/L (8-40 weeks), while reversible hypothyroidism and polycythemia were reported in humans at ~300 µg/L and higher (≥2 weeks). Lung cancer risks associated with certain inhalation exposures have not been observed following Co ingestion and Co alloy implants. The mode of action for systemic toxicity relates directly to free Co(II) ion interactions with various receptors, ion channels and biomolecules resulting in generally reversible effects. Certain dose-response anomalies for Co toxicity likely relate to rare disease states known to reduce systemic Co(II)-ion binding to blood proteins. Based on the available information, most people with clearly elevated serum Co, like supplement users and hip implant patients, have >90% of Co as albumin-bound, with considerable excess binding capacity to sequester Co(II) ions. This paper reviews the scientific literature regarding the chemistry, pharmacokinetics and systemic toxicology of Co, and the likely role of free Co(II) ions to explain dose-response relationships. Based on currently available data, it might be useful to monitor implant patients for signs of hypothyroidism and polycythemia starting at blood or serum Co concentrations above 100 µg/L. This concentration is derived by applying an uncertainty factor of 3 to the 300 µg/L point of departure and this should adequately account for the fact that persons in the various studies were exposed for less than one year. A higher uncertainty factor could be warranted but Co has a relatively fast elimination, and many of the populations studied were of children and those with kidney problems. Closer follow-up of patients who also exhibit chronic disease states leading to clinically important hypoalbuminemia and/or severe ischemia modified albumin (IMA) elevations should be considered.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

356891
Cobalt, foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.95% trace metals basis
Co
266671
Cobalt, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Co
326380
Cobalt, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, ≥99.99%
Co
356867
Cobalt, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.95% trace metals basis
Co
203076
Cobalt, granular, 99.99% trace metals basis
Co
266655
Cobalt, pieces, 99.5% trace metals basis
Co
266647
Cobalt, powder, <150 μm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Co
266639
Cobalt, powder, 2 μm particle size, 99.8% trace metals basis
Co
266663
Cobalt, rod, diam. 5.0 mm, 99.998% trace metals basis
Co
398810
Cobalt, rod, diam. 5.0 mm, 99.95% trace metals basis
Co
266701
Cobalt, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.995% trace metals basis
Co
697745
Cobalt, Carbon coated magnetic, nanopowder, <50 nm particle size (TEM), ≥99%
Co
GF94594450
Cobalt, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.9%
Co
GF41541476
Cobalt, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Co
GF45372315
Cobalt, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.003mm, 99.9%
Co
GF08560289
Cobalt, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.004mm, 99.9%
Co
GF89559343
Cobalt, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.005mm, 99.9%
Co
GF48392051
Cobalt, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.006mm, 99.9%
Co
GF55954873
Cobalt, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.007mm, 99.9%
Co
GF92926727
Cobalt, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.008mm, 99.9%
Co
GF70445246
Cobalt, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.009mm, 99.9%
Co
GF40089225
Cobalt, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.0125mm, 99.9%
Co
GF48813723
Cobalt, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.125mm, annealed, 99.9%
Co
GF10782121
Cobalt, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Co
GF40808516
Cobalt, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.9%
Co
GF18093461
Cobalt, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Co
GF30160291
Cobalt, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Co
GF81966224
Cobalt, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.7mm, annealed, 99.9%
Co
GF56494187
Cobalt, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.9%
Co
GF76259593
Cobalt, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 2.0mm, as rolled, 99.9%
Co