Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

Exercise-inducible factors to activate lipolysis in adipocytes.

PMID 23681914


We examined the effects of exercise training on the levels of lipid droplet (LD)-associated and mitochondria-related proteins in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Furthermore, we assessed putative factors induced by exercise to activate lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DIO Wistar male rats (age 20 wk) were divided into sedentary control (SED, n = 7) and exercise training (EX, n = 7) groups. EX animals were subjected to treadmill running (25 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 6 wk. Epididymal fat was dissected and used for protein analyses. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with media containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sodium-lactate, caffeine, AICAR, or SNAP (NO donor) for 6 h, or 1 mM H2O2 for 15 min, followed by incubation with normal media for up to 24 h total. Protein expression levels and lipolytic activities were biochemically assayed. Epididymal fat significantly decreased in EX animals compared with SED animals. Levels of cytochrome c oxidase (COx), perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) proteins in epididymal fat pads of EX animals were significantly increased compared with those in SED animals. In 3T3-L1 cells, glycerol or fatty acid release was significantly increased by all treatments. Lactate or SNAP significantly increased PGC-1α expression, and H2O2 significantly increased COx protein levels compared with controls. Expression of perilipin, HSL, ATGL, or comparative gene identification (CGI)-58 was significantly increased by all treatments. By increasing lipolytic activity in adipocytes, the exercise-inducible factors are attractive therapeutic effectors against LD-associated metabolic diseases.