Plant cell reports

Crosstalk between intracellular and extracellular salicylic acid signaling events leading to long-distance spread of signals.

PMID 23689257


It is well recognized that salicylic acid (SA) acts as a natural signaling molecule involved in both local and systemic plant defense responses upon attacks by pathogens. Recently, cellular SA receptors and a number of SA-related phloem-mobile signals were identified. Here, we compare the old and up-to-date concepts of plant defense signaling events involving SA. Finally, the crosstalk between intracellular and extracellular SA signaling events leading to long-distance spread of signals was outlined by focusing on the modes of both the short- and long-distance signaling events involving the actions of SA. For the above purpose, two distinct conceptual models for local SA perception and signaling mechanisms in the intracellular and extracellular paths (referred to as models i and ii, respectively) were proposed. In addition to two local SA perception models, we propose that the long-distance SA action could be attributed to three different modes, namely, (iii) local increase in SA followed by transport of SA and SA intermediates, (iv) systemic propagation of SA-derived signals with both chemical and electrical natures without direct movement of SA, and (v) integrated crosstalk allowing alternately repeated secondary signal propagation and biosynthesis of SA and/or conversion of inert SA intermediates to free SA finally contributing to the systemic spread of SA-derived signals. We review here that the long-distance SA signaling events (models iii-v), inevitably involve the mechanisms described in the local signaling models (models i and ii) as the key pieces of the crosstalk.