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Science (New York, N.Y.)

Structural basis for the counter-transport mechanism of a H+/Ca2+ exchanger.


PMID 23704374

Abstract

Ca(2+)/cation antiporters catalyze the exchange of Ca(2+) with various cations across biological membranes to regulate cytosolic calcium levels. The recently reported structure of a prokaryotic Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX_Mj) revealed its overall architecture in an outward-facing state. Here, we report the crystal structure of a H(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (CAX_Af) in the two representatives of the inward-facing conformation at 2.3 Å resolution. The structures suggested Ca(2+) or H(+) binds to the cation-binding site mutually exclusively. Structural comparison of CAX_Af with NCX_Mj revealed that the first and sixth transmembrane helices alternately create hydrophilic cavities on the intra- and extracellular sides. The structures and functional analyses provide insight into the mechanism of how the inward- to outward-facing state transition is triggered by the Ca(2+) and H(+) binding.

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