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Toxicology and industrial health

Comparison of potential protective effects of melatonin and propylthiouracil against lipid peroxidation caused by nitrobenzene in the thyroid gland.


PMID 23723263

Abstract

Nitrobenzene is a carcinogen, which induces-among others-thyroid tumors. Melatonin is an effective antioxidant, whereas some antioxidative effects of propylthiouracil (PTU; an antithyroid medication used for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis) were also found. The aim of the study was to compare protective effects of melatonin and PTU against lipid peroxidation in homogenates of porcine thyroids, incubated in the presence of nitrobenzene. Homogenates of porcine thyroids were incubated for 30 min in the presence of nitrobenzene (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mM). The level of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals) was measured spectrophotometrically. Nitrobenzene (7.5 and 10.0 mM) increased lipid peroxidation in the homogenates of porcine thyroids. Subsequently, homogenates of porcine thyroids were incubated for 30 min in the presence of nitrobenzene (7.5 mM) plus one of the antioxidants: melatonin (0.000001, 0.00001, 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM) or PTU (0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM). Lipid peroxidation caused by nitrobenzene was effectively prevented by melatonin, with the lowest effective concentration of 0.0001 mM, being only two orders of magnitude higher than physiological blood concentration in humans. At the same time, PTU revealed protective effects only in the highest used concentration (7.5 mM), which is practically never reached during pharmacological treatment in patients with thyrotoxicosis. Melatonin can serve as an effective agent in protection against nitrobenzene-induced lipid peroxidation in porcine thyroid.

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