International journal of pharmaceutics

Effects of pharmaceutical excipients on membrane permeability in rat small intestine.

PMID 23742974


Pharmaceutical excipients should not disturb the effects of drug therapy. In recent years, however, it has been reported that excipients induce some changes to the tight junction (TJ) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which can affect drug disposition. In this study, we examined the effects of 20 common pharmaceutical excipients from different classes on mucosal membrane and the differences of such effects among regions of the small intestine. We used the in vitro sac method in rat jejunum and ileum to study the effects of excipients on the membrane permeation of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF). 5-CF was used as a model of water-soluble compounds. In some dosage conditions of methyl-β-cyclodextrin, the membrane permeability of 5-CF was significantly increased in the jejunum, but such change was not observed in the ileum. Similarly, in the cases of sodium carboxymethyl starch, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose and croscarmellose sodium, the membrane permeability of 5-CF was significantly increased in the jejunum, but no change was observed in the ileum. On the other hand, in both the jejunum and the ileum, the membrane permeation of 5-CF was decreased with 0.02% (w/v) hydroxypropyl cellulose, but significantly increased with it at 0.20% (w/v). It was shown that excipients affected the membrane permeability of water-soluble compounds via the paracellular route, and these effects on absorption differed among regions of the small intestine. Moreover, in the case of 20 excipients, not only an increase in membrane permeability but also a decrease was observed. Therefore, it was suggested that a more effective formulation could be designed by changing the combination of excipients.

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5(6)-Carboxyfluorescein, Dye content 90 %