European journal of orthodontics

Three-dimensional analysis of the change in the curvature of the smiling line following orthodontic treatment in incisor class II division 1 malocclusion.

PMID 23771899


To investigate the different effects of changes in the occlusal plane, incisors inclination, and maxillary intercanine width on the curvature of the smiling line. Records of 46 subjects (28 females and 18 males, mean age 16.6 ± 4.2 years) with incisor class II division 1 malocclusions were selected. All subjects had four premolar extractions and were treated with preadjusted edgewise appliances. Pre- and post-treatment maxillary dental digital models were virtually aligned via corresponding landmarks to the respective lateral cephalograms. Subsequent two-dimensional superimposition of the aligned cephalograms facilitated the three-dimensional superimposition of the pre- and post-treatment models. This process allowed the quantification of the curvature from a frontal perspective of the models. The change in curvature was then correlated with changes in the cephalometric inclination of the anterior occlusal plane (AOP), functional occlusal plane (FOP), maxillary central incisor (U1), and the intercanine width. Orthodontic correction in this sample resulted in the clockwise rotation of the anterior occlusal plane (5.84 degrees), reduction in proclination of the incisors (-14.39 degrees), increase in intercanine width (2.48mm), and a corresponding increase in the curvature of the smiling line (6.83 degrees). The change in curvature of the smiling line in these subjects was found to be related more significantly to the magnitude of difference in the inclination between the pre-treatment AOP and FOP than to the change in the inclination of the maxillary incisors. With orthodontic treatment, the smiling line can be correlated with cephalometric data to improve or maintain the curvature.

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