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Alterations of membrane lipids and in gene expression of ganglioside metabolism in different brain structures in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I).


PMID 23774686

Abstract

Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a congenital disorder caused by the deficiency of α-l-iduronidase (IDUA), with the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the CNS. Although GAG toxicity is not fully understood, previous works suggest a GAG-induced alteration in neuronal membrane composition. This study is aimed to evaluate the levels and distribution of gangliosides and cholesterol in different brain regions (cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and hypothalamus) in a model using IDUA knockout (KO) mice (C57BL/6). Lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol and then total gangliosides and cholesterol were determined, followed by ganglioside profile analyses. While no changes in cholesterol content were observed, the results showed a tissue dependent ganglioside alteration in KO mice: a total ganglioside increase in cortex and cerebellum, and a selective presence of GM3, GM2 and GD3 gangliosides in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. To elucidate this, we evaluated gene expression of ganglioside synthesis (GM3, GD3 and GM2/GD2 synthases) and degradation of (Neuraminidase1) enzymes in the cerebellum and hippocampus by RT-sq-PCR. The results obtained with KO mice showed a reduced expression of GD3 and GM2/GD2 synthases and Neuraminidase1 in cerebellum; and a decrease in GM2/GD2 synthase and Neuraminidase1 in the hippocampus. These data suggest that the observed ganglioside changes result from a combined effect of GAGs on ganglioside biosynthesis and degradation.