Serum uric acid and blood pressure in children at cardiovascular risk.

PMID 23776119


Hyperuricemia has been shown to be a strong correlate of hypertension in children. However, the complex interaction between serum uric acid (UA), systemic blood pressure (BP), and possibly confounding factors has been elucidated only in part. We evaluated office BP as well as clinical and biohumoral parameters in a cross-sectional cohort of 501 children (280 boys and 221 girls) aged between 6 and 18 years (mean = 10.8 years) consecutively referred for cardiovascular risk assessment. Overall, 156 (31.1%) were normotensive, 122 (24.4%) showed transient hypertension, 87 (17.4%) had prehypertension, and 136 (27.1%) had hypertension. Altogether 33.3% and 40.5% of the study group were overweight or obese, respectively. There was a trend toward greater weight and waist circumference and higher BMI, Homeostasis Model Assessment index, and UA levels as the BP categories rose. Moreover, the prevalence of pubertal children, obesity, and waist-to-height ratio above 0.50 progressively increased from lower to upper BP categories. After adjusting for puberty, gender, BMI (z-score), Homeostasis Model Assessment index, and renal function, UA was found to be directly related to systolic and diastolic BP values (P = .03). Using normotensive children for comparison, the risk of showing prehypertension or hypertension increased by at least 50% for each 1 mg/dL UA increase (P < .01), whereas it doubled for children in the top gender-specific UA quartile (P < .03). Increased UA levels showed an independent predictive power for the presence of higher BP levels among a cohort of children at relatively high cardiovascular risk.