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Bulletin de la Societe des sciences medicales du Grand-Duche de Luxembourg

[Prostate cancer in Luxembourg from 1982 to 2006. Incidence and mortality. Survival of a hospital cohort].


PMID 23808106

Abstract

Prostate cancer incidence has tripled in Luxembourg as in many other western countries. From 1982 to 2006, new cases increased from 80 to 309 per year, while the incidence (world stand.pop.) rose from 29.5 to 85 per 100 000 men. Since 1991 prostate cancer is the most frequent male cancer in Luxembourg, exceeding colo-rectal, lung and stomach cancer. Prostate cancer deaths have diminished from 64 in 1982 to 45 in 2006. This represents less than 10% of male cancer related deaths; it represents the third most frequent cancer death, behind lung and colo-rectal cancers. Annual mortality rate has decreased from 29 to 10 per 100 000 men during the same period, this difference between incidence and mortality is explained on the one hand by the widespread use of PSA since the 1990's and on the other hand by a better local control as well as a multidisciplinary approach of advanced disease. The increase of the incidence is particularly important in the 60 to 70 age group, while for men older than 70, the peak incidence was reached in 2002. A lowering of the age at diagnosis is confirmed by the 5-year age group analysis. The hospital cohort consists of 628 patients from the urological department of the Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1st January 1982 and 31st December 2006; follow-up ended 31st December 2011. During this period, age at diagnosis decreased from 71.5 to 68.9 years whereas the proportion of localized clinical stages increased from 44 to 70%. Median PSA dropped from 14.5 to 9 ng/ml. Furthermore the analysis of cancer specific mortality confirms the negative effects of an advanced clinical stage (10-year survival: 90% for localized disease, 60% for advanced disease) or a high PSA level at diagnosis (10-year survival: 97% if PSA < 4 ng/nl, 94% if 4 < PSA < 10, and 72% if PSA > 10 ng/ml), as well as a poor differentiation (60% 10-year survival compared to 90% for differentiated tumors). Kaplan-Meier curves show that long term surveillance is necessary as even tumors with a good initial prognosis may relapse after 10-12 years.