The Knee

Topical tranexamic acid in total knee replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PMID 23815893


To examine the safety and efficacy of topical use of tranexamic acid (TA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An electronic literature search of PubMed Medline; Ovid Medline; Embase; and the Cochrane Library was performed, identifying studies published in any language from 1966 to February 2013. The studies enrolled adults undergoing a primary TKA, where topical TA was used. Inverse variance statistical method and either a fixed or random effect model, depending on the absence or presence of statistical heterogeneity were used; subgroup analysis was performed when possible. We identified a total of seven eligible reports for analysis. Our meta-analysis indicated that when compared with the control group, topical application of TA limited significantly postoperative drain output (mean difference: -268.36ml), total blood loss (mean difference=-220.08ml), Hb drop (mean difference=-0.94g/dL) and lowered the risk of transfusion requirements (risk ratio=0.47, 95CI=0.26-0.84), without increased risk of thromboembolic events. Sub-group analysis indicated that a higher dose of topical TA (>2g) significantly reduced transfusion requirements. Although the present meta-analysis proved a statistically significant reduction of postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements with topical use of TA in TKA, the clinical importance of the respective estimates of effect size should be interpreted with caution. I, II.

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Tranexamic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard