Biochimica et biophysica acta

Hyperosmolarity-induced up-regulation of claudin-4 mediated by NADPH oxidase-dependent H2O2 production and Sp1/c-Jun cooperation.

PMID 23816505


Claudin-4 is exclusively localized in the tight collecting ducts in the renal tubule. We examined what molecular mechanism is involved in the regulation of claudin-4 expression. In Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, hyperosmolarity increased the expression level of claudin-4 and the production of reactive oxygen species, which were inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and manganese (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP), a scavenger of H2O2. Both hyperosmolarity and H2O2 increased p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK, which were inhibited by U0126, a MEK inhibitor, and SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, respectively. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that hyperosmolarity increased the association of nuclear Sp1 with c-Jun, which was inhibited by U0126 and SP600125. In mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells and rat kidney slices, hyperosmolarity increased the expression level of claudin-4, which was inhibited by DPI, MnTBAP, U0126, and SP600125. Hyperosmolarity increased luciferase reporter activity of claudin-4, which was inhibited by U0126, SP600125, Sp1 siRNA, and c-Jun siRNA. The activity was inhibited by the mutation in the Sp1 binding site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and avidin-biotin conjugated DNA assay showed that Sp1 and c-Jun are associated with the Sp1 binding site. These results suggest that hyperosmolarity increases nuclear Sp1/c-Jun complex and the association of the complex with the Sp1 binding site, resulting in the segment-specific expression of claudin-4 in the kidney.