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Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

Comparative toxicity of methidathion and glyphosate on early life stages of three amphibian species: Pelophylax ridibundus, Pseudepidalea viridis, and Xenopus laevis.


PMID 23831689

Abstract

The assessments of pesticide toxicity on nontarget organisms have largely been focused on the determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) values using single/laboratory species. Although useful, these studies cannot describe the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity and also cannot explain the effects of pesticides on natural species. In this study, the toxic effects of glyphosate and methidathion were evaluated comparatively on early developmental stages of 3 anurans-2 natural (Pelophylax ridibundus, Pseudepidalea viridis) and 1 laboratory species (Xenopus laevis). The 96-h LC50 values for methidathion and glyphosate were determined as 25.7-19.6 mg active ingredient (AI)/L for P. viridis, 27.4-22.7 mg AI/L for P. ridibundus, and 15.3-5.05 mg AI/L for X. laevis tadpoles. Furthermore, as early signs of intoxication, glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), glutathione reductase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotrasferase were assayed in 4-day-old tadpoles after 96-h pesticide exposure. The GST induction after 3.2mg AI/L methidathion exposure was determined to be 173%, 83%, and 38% of control, and the AChE inhibition for the same dose was determined to be 86%, 96%, and 30% of control for P. ridibundus, P. viridis, and X. laevis, respectively. Unlike the application of methidathion, all enzyme activities showed statistically significant increases on glyphosate exposure compared to controls. However, these increases in enzyme activities were not shown to be parallel with the increase of concentration. The levels of increases of GST and AChE were determined to be 111% and 31% for P. ridibundus, 13% and 51% for P. viridis, and 15% and 36% for X. laevis after 3.2mg AI/L glyphosate exposure, respectively. The findings of the study suggest that the most sensitive species to pesticide exposure is X. laevis. The selected biomarker enzymes AChE, CaE, and GST are useful in understanding the toxic mechanisms of these pesticides in anuran tadpoles as early warning indicators.

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