PloS one

Suppressing NF-κB and NKRF Pathways by Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapy in Mice with Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury.

PMID 23840526


High-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation used in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) can induce the release of inflammatory cytokines, as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), recruitment of neutrophils, and disruption of alveolar epithelial and endothelial barriers. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to improve ALI in mice, but the mechanisms regulating the interactions between mechanical ventilation and iPSCs are not fully elucidated. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and NF-κB repressing factor (NKRF) have been proposed to modulate the neutrophil activation involved in ALI. Thus, we hypothesized intravenous injection of iPSCs or iPSC-derived conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) would decrease high-tidal-volume ventilation-induced neutrophil infiltration, oxidative stress, and MIP-2 production through NF-κB/NKRF pathways. Male C57BL/6 mice, aged between 6 and 8 weeks, weighing between 20 and 25 g, were exposed to high-tidal-volume (30 ml/kg) mechanical ventilation with room air for 1 to 4 h after 5×10(7) cells/kg mouse iPSCs or iPSC-CM administration. Nonventilated mice were used as control groups. High-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation induced the increases of integration of iPSCs into the injured lungs of mice, microvascular permeability, neutrophil infiltration, malondialdehyde, MIP-2 production, and NF-κB and NKRF activation. Lung injury indices including inflammation, lung edema, ultrastructure pathologic changes and functional gas exchange impairment induced by mechanical ventilation were attenuated with administration of iPSCs or iPSC-CM, which was mimicked by pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activity with SN50 or NKRF expression with NKRF short interfering RNA. Our data suggest that iPSC-based therapy attenuates high-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury, at least partly, through inhibition of NF-κB/NKRF pathways. Notably, the conditioned medium of iPSCs revealed beneficial effects equal to those of iPSCs.

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Anti-NKRF antibody produced in rabbit, IgG fraction of antiserum