Journal of medical microbiology

Antimicrobial susceptibility of animal and human isolates of Clostridium difficile by broth microdilution.

PMID 23861298


A total of 188 human (n = 92) and animal (n = 96) isolates of Clostridium difficile of different PCR ribotypes were screened for susceptibility to 30 antimicrobials using broth microdilution. When comparing the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the isolates of animal origin were significantly more often resistant to oxacillin, gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (P<0.01). The most significant difference between the animal and human populations (P = 0.0006) was found in the level of imipenem resistance, with a prevalence of 53.3 % in isolates of human origin and 28.1 % in isolates of animal origin. Overall, the results show similar MICs for the majority of tested antimicrobials for isolates from human and animal sources, which were collected from the same geographical region and in the same time interval. This supports the hypothesis that C. difficile could be transmissible between human and animal hosts. Resistant isolates have been found in all animal species tested, including food and companion animals, and also among non-toxigenic isolates. The isolates of the most prevalent PCR ribotype 014/020 had low resistance rates for moxifloxacin, erythromycin, rifampicin and daptomycin, but a high resistance rate for imipenem. Multiresistant strains were found in animals and humans, belonging to PCR ribotypes 012, 017, 027, 045, 046, 078 and 150, and also to non-toxigenic strains of PCR ribotypes 010 and SLO 080.

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