Ultrasonics sonochemistry

Environmental friendly cold-mechanical/sonic enzymatic assisted extraction of genipin from genipap (Genipa americana).

PMID 23871416


An efficient cold-mechanical/sonic-assisted extraction technique was developed for extraction of genipin from genipap (Genipa americana) peel. Ultrasound assisted extraction (285 W, 24 kHz) was performed at 5, 10 and 15 °C for 5, 10 and 15 min. After cold-extraction, genipin was separated from pectin and proteins by aid of fungal pectinesterase. The maximum yield of non-cross-linked genipin was 7.85±0.33 mg/g, at 10 °C for 15 min by means of ultrasound extraction. The protein amount in extracts decreased in all samples. If mechanical process is combined with ultrasound assisted extraction the yield is increased by 8 times after the pectinesterase-assisted polyelectrolyte complex formation between pectic polysaccharides and proteins, avoiding the typical cross-linking of genipin. This novel process is viable to obtain non-cross-linked genipin, to be used as a natural colorant and cross-linker in the food and biotechnological industries.

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