Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences

Toxicity of chlorothalonil containing formulation and Cu-sulphate to chicken.

PMID 23885413


The agrochemicals are being used increasing amounts in plant protection. The plant protection must pay close attention to the decrease or complete elimination of the damage to the environment which affects wildlife, because the cultivated plants provided not only feedstuffs for wild birds but a living and hatching territory as well. The pesticides sprayed during the plant protection activities might have an influence not only on mature birds but also on the embryos in the eggs. The eggs may be exposed to pesticides, the toxic effect of which may appear as embryo lethality and development anomalies. The aim of this study was to determine the individual and combined toxic effects of a chlorothalonil containing fungicide formulation (BRAVO 500) and copper sulphate on the development of chicken embryos. The test materials were injected directly into the air-chamber in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg on the first day of incubation. Applied concentration of copper sulphate was 0.01% and the concentrations of fungicide BRAVO 500 were 1% and 10%. The chicken embryos were examined for the followings: rate of embryo mortality, body weight, type of developmental anomalies, light microscopic examination. Our teratogenicity study revealed that, the combined administration of injected copper sulphate and chlorothalonil containing fungicide formulation (BRAVO 500) caused a significant reduction in the body weight of embryos, markedly increased the rate of embryonic mortality and the incidence of developmental anomalies. The joint toxic effect of copper sulphate and chlorothalonil containing fungicide formulation (BRAVO 500) is an additive effect compared to the individual toxicity of the test materials.