Peroxide-shunt substrate-specificity for the Salmonella typhimurium O2-dependent tRNA modifying monooxygenase (MiaE).

PMID 23906247


Post-transcriptional modifications of tRNA are made to structurally diversify tRNA. These modifications alter noncovalent interactions within the ribosomal machinery, resulting in phenotypic changes related to cell metabolism, growth, and virulence. MiaE is a carboxylate bridged, nonheme diiron monooxygenase, which catalyzes the O2-dependent hydroxylation of a hypermodified-tRNA nucleoside at position 37 (2-methylthio-N(6)-isopentenyl-adenosine(37)-tRNA) [designated ms(2)i(6)A37]. In this work, recombinant MiaE was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium , purified to homogeneity, and characterized by UV-visible and dual-mode X-band EPR spectroscopy for comparison to other nonheme diiron enzymes. Additionally, three nucleoside substrate-surrogates (i(6)A, Cl(2)i(6)A, and ms(2)i(6)A) and their corresponding hydroxylated products (io(6)A, Cl(2)io(6)A, and ms(2)io(6)A) were synthesized to investigate the chemo- and stereospecificity of this enzyme. In the absence of the native electron transport chain, the peroxide-shunt was utilized to monitor the rate of substrate hydroxylation. Remarkably, regardless of the substrate (i(6)A, Cl(2)i(6)A, and ms(2)i(6)A) used in peroxide-shunt assays, hydroxylation of the terminal isopentenyl-C4-position was observed with >97% E-stereoselectivity. No other nonspecific hydroxylation products were observed in enzymatic assays. Steady-state kinetic experiments also demonstrate that the initial rate of MiaE hydroxylation is highly influenced by the substituent at the C2-position of the nucleoside base (v0/[E] for ms(2)i(6)A > i(6)A > Cl(2)i(6)A). Indeed, the >3-fold rate enhancement exhibited by MiaE for the hydroxylation of the free ms(2)i(6)A nucleoside relative to i(6)A is consistent with previous whole cell assays reporting the ms(2)io(6)A and io(6)A product distribution within native tRNA-substrates. This observation suggests that the nucleoside C2-substituent is a key point of interaction regulating MiaE substrate specificity.