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Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

Total synthesis of enantiopure pyrrhoxanthin: alternative methods for the stereoselective preparation of 4-alkylidenebutenolides.


PMID 23939906

Abstract

A new stereocontrolled total synthesis of the configurationally labile C37 -norcarotenoid pyrrhoxanthin in enantiopure form has been completed. A highly stereoselective Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) condensation of a C17-allylphosphonate and a C20-aldehyde was used as the last conjunctive step. Both a Sonogashira reaction to form the C17-phosphonate and the final HWE condensation proved to be compatible with the sensitive C7-C10 enyne E configuration. Regioselective (5-exo-dig) silver-promoted lactonization reactions of three alternative pent-2-en-4-ynoic acid precursors with increased complexity, including a fully functionalized C20-fragment, were explored for the preparation of the γ-alkylidenebutenolide fragment. This survey extends the existing methodologies for the preparation of oxygen-containing carotenoids (xanthophylls) and streamlines the synthesis of additional members of the C37-norcarotenoid butenolide family of natural products.

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