The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

The predictive value of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome receiving clomiphene citrate: a prospective observational study.

PMID 23979947


Elevated serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to lower sensitivity of ovarian follicles to circulating FSH. This effect may compromise the outcome of clomiphene citrate (CC) ovulation induction. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of high circulating AMH on the outcome of CC ovulation induction in women with PCOS. This was a prospective cohort observational study. The study was conducted at the Fertility Unit, Derby, United Kingdom. Sixty anovulatory women with PCOS participated in the study. Serum AMH concentrations were measured on cycle day 2 during 187 CC cycles. These concentrations were compared between responders and nonresponders. The receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the prognostic value of circulating AMH. The success rates of CC were compared between patients with high vs low AMH levels. The dose of CC required to achieve ovulation was correlated with serum AMH concentrations. Ovulation and pregnancy rates were measured. Serum AMH concentrations were significantly (P < .001) lower in responders (achieving ovulation) vs nonresponders (mean ± SEM, 2.5 ± 0.1 vs 5.8 ± 0.7 ng/mL, respectively). Similarly, serum AMH concentrations were significantly (P = .046) lower in pregnant (3.0 ± 0.4 ng/mL) vs nonpregnant patients (4.4 ± 0.5 ng/mL). There was a significant (P = .02) gradient increase of serum AMH levels with the increasing dose of CC required to achieve ovulation. The receiver-operating characteristic curve showed AMH to be a useful predictor of no ovulation (area under the curve, 0.809; P < .001) with a useful cutoff level of 3.4 ng/mL. Ovulation and pregnancy rates were significantly higher (97%, P < .001, and 46%, P = .034) in patients with low AMH (<3.4 ng/mL) vs women with AMH 3.4 ng/mL or greater (48% and 19%). PCOS women with high circulating AMH (≥ 3.4 ng/mL) seem to be resistant to CC and may require a higher starting dose.

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SML0719 Enclomiphene hydrochloride, ≥96% (HPLC)
C26H28ClNO · HCl