European journal of immunology

Dynamic changes in chromatin conformation at the TNF transcription start site in T helper lymphocyte subsets.

PMID 24009130


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is one of the key primary response genes in the immune system that can be activated by a variety of stimuli. Previous analysis of chromatin accessibility to DNaseI demonstrated open chromatin conformation of the TNF proximal promoter in T cells. Here, using chromatin probing with restriction enzyme EcoNI and micrococcal nuclease we show that in contrast to the proximal promoter, the TNF transcription start site remains in a closed chromatin configuration in primary T helper (Th) cells, but acquires an open state after activation or polarization under Th1 and Th17 conditions. We further demonstrate that transcription factor c-Jun plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of open chromatin conformation at the transcription start site of the TNF gene.