Journal of the American College of Nutrition

Triglyceride recrystallized phytosterols in fat-free milk improve lipoprotein profiles more than unmodified free phytosterols in hypercholesterolemic men and women.

PMID 24024768


Foods incorporating plant sterols (PS) consistently decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), although results vary depending on the PS form and food matrix. The objective was to study the effect of a novel triglyceride-recrystallized phystosterol (TRP) incorporated into fat-free milk on markers of cardiovascular risk compared to unmodified free sterols alone in the same fat-free milk. Hypercholesterolemic men and women (n = 13 males/7 females; 56 ± 10 years; body mass index 27.3 ± 5.9 kg/m(2)) participated in 3 sequential 4-week phases of 480 mL milk consumption. During phase 1 (control) all subjects consumed 2% milk containing no PS, followed by phase 2 with fat-free milk containing free PS (2 g/d fPS) and phase 3 with fat-free milk with TRP (2 g/d). After each phase, determinations of lipoprotein cholesterol distribution, particle concentration via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), apolipoproteins, inflammatory markers, and fat-soluble dietary antioxidants were made. Body mass, body composition, dietary energy and macronutrients, and physical activity were unaffected throughout the study. Compared to the control 2% milk, LDL-C was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by fPS (-9.1%) and was further decreased by TRP (-15.4%); reductions with TRP were significantly greater. Total LDL particle concentration was decreased to a greater extent after TRP (-8.8%) than fPS (-4.8%; p < 0.05). Only TRP significantly decreased serum levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB; -6%), interleukin-8 (IL-8; -11%) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; -19%). Plasma α- and γ-tocopherols and carotenoids, normalized to cholesterol, remained unchanged throughout the study with the exception that β-carotene was lowered by 18%. In summary, TRP in fat-free milk may provide cardiovascular benefits beyond that of fPS by inducing more substantial decreases in LDL cholesterol and particle concentration, associated with declines in markers of vascular inflammation.

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W530066 Tocopherols, mixed, Low-α type, FCC, FG