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Biochimica et biophysica acta

PPARγ-dependent pathway in the growth-inhibitory effects of K562 cells by carotenoids in combination with rosiglitazone.


PMID 24036327

Abstract

Carotenoids have been found to play roles in the prevention and therapy of some cancers which PPARγ was also discovered to be involved in. The present studies were directed to determine the inhibitory effects of carotenoids in combination with rosiglitazone, a synthetic PPARγ agonist, on K562 cell proliferation and elucidate the contribution of PPARγ-dependent pathway to cell proliferation suppression. The effects of carotenoid and rosiglitazone combination on K562 cell proliferation were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion assay and MTT assay. When PPARγ has been inhibited by GW9662 and siRNA, cycle-related regulator expression in K562 cells treated with carotenoid and rosiglitazone combination was analyzed by Western blotting. Rosiglitazone inhibited K562 cell proliferation and augmented the inhibitory effects of carotenoids on the cell proliferation greatly. Specific PPARγ inhibition attenuated the cell growth suppression induced by carotenoid and rosiglitazone combination. GW9662 pre-treatment attenuated the enhanced up-regulation of PPARγ expression caused by the combination treatment. Moreover, GW9662 and PPARγ siRNA also significantly attenuated the up-regulation of p21 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 caused by carotenoids and rosiglitazone. PPARγ signaling pathway, via stimulating p21 and inhibiting cyclin D1, may play an important role in the anti-proliferative effects of carotenoid and rosiglitazone combination on K562 cells. Carotenoids in combination with rosiglitazone are hopeful to provide attractive dietary or supplementation-based and pharmaceutical strategies to treat cancer diseases.