Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine

Alteration in apoptosis and cell cycle by celecoxib and/or fish oil in 7,12-dimethyl benzene (α) anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

PMID 24057882


Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a useful approach for cancer prevention but has several side effects. A novel approach combining these chemopreventive agents at low doses with dietary elements has been suggested to augment their effects and reduce side effects. Dietary fats, particularly, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) also exert cancer chemopreventive effect mediated through COX-2 inhibition. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of combined dosage of celecoxib and n-3 PUFA-rich fish oil in experimental mammary carcinogenesis. Female Wistar rats were distributed into control and DMBA-treated groups. The groups were further subdivided based on pretreatment with celecoxib and/or fish oil. The animals were maintained for 90 days before sacrifice. To analyze the role of redox signaling, the two mediators, reactive oxygen species and calcium, and their effects on c-myc expression were evaluated. The chemopreventive effect was assessed by measurement of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and p53 in isolated mammary epithelial cells. Increased redox signaling with enhanced c-myc, p53 expression, and augmented apoptotic and proliferative rate were observed in carcinogen-treated animals. Pretreatment of carcinogen-treated animals with celecoxib and/or fish oil altered redox signaling with reduced c-myc, p53 expression, apoptosis, and proliferation. However, a combination dosage of celecoxib and fish oil had a better chemopreventive effect. The results suggest that a combination of celecoxib and fish oil is more effective in the chemoprevention of experimental mammary carcinogenesis, and this effect can be attributed to the modification of redox signaling.