Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology

Permethrin exposure from fabric-treated military uniforms under different wear-time scenarios.

PMID 24104061


The objective of the project was to ascertain whether urinary biomarkers of permethrin exposure are detected after wearing post-tailored, fabric-treated military uniforms under two different wear-time exposure scenarios. Study A occurred over 3.5 days and involved six participants wearing treated uniforms continuously for 30-32 h. Urine collection occurred at scheduled time points before, during, and after wearing the uniform. Study B, conducted over 19 days, included 11 participants wearing treated uniforms for 3 consecutive days, 8 h each day (with urine collection before, during, and after wear). Urinary biomarkers of permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis- 2,2-(dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (cDCCA), trans- 2,2-(dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (tDCCA)) were detected during and after wear. Biomarker detection generally occurred over the 10- to 12-h period after putting on the uniform and subsided 24 h following uniform removal (in both Study A and B scenarios). Those wearing permethrin-treated uniforms under the longer wear-time scenario (Study A) excreted significantly higher cumulative mean levels compared with those in Study B (3.29 times higher for 3PBA and 2.23 times higher for the sum of c/tDCCA (P≤0.001)). Findings suggest that wearing permethrin-treated clothing does increase absorbed, internal dose levels of permethrin above population levels and is significantly related to wear-time duration.