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Pediatric blood & cancer

Phase II trial of clofarabine with topotecan, vinorelbine, and thiotepa in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia.


PMID 24115731

Abstract

Outcomes for children with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are dismal. In an effort to improve outcomes, we performed a phase I/II study of a novel clofarabine based combination regimen called TVTC. Herein, we report the response rates of patients in the phase II portion of the study. Seventeen patients with R/R ALL, AML, or biphenotypic leukemia were enrolled. Sixteen patients were evaluable for response. Patients were treated at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) from the phase I portion of the study (clofarabine 40 mg/m(2) /day IV × 5 days, topotecan 1 mg/m(2) /day IV continuous infusion × 5 days, vinorelbine 20 mg/m(2) /week IV × 3 weeks, thiotepa 15 mg/m(2)/day IV × 1 day). The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), defined as CR or CR without platelet recovery (CRp). The ORR was 69% (10 CR, 1 CRp). Among the 11 responders, 9 (82%) proceeded to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The most common grade 3+ non-hematologic toxicities were febrile neutropenia (82%) and transient transaminase elevation (47%). TVTC demonstrates significant activity in patients with R/R acute leukemia. The activity in R/R AML patients was very encouraging, with 8 of 12 (67%) patients achieving a CR/CRp. Patients with high risk de novo AML may benefit from incorporation of TVTC therapy into frontline treatment regimens. This regimen warrants further exploration in a larger cohort of patients with R/R leukemia.

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