Baseline serum uric acid level as a predictor of cardiovascular disease related mortality and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

PMID 24125412


Serum uric acid (SUA) levels have been used to predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality event, but the data have yielded conflicting results. We investigated whether SUA was an independent predictor for cardiovascular or all-cause mortality with prospective studies by meta-analysis. Pubmed and Embase were searched without language restrictions for publications available till April 2013. Only prospective studies on cardiovascular or all-cause mortality related to SUA levels were included. Pooled adjust relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated separately for the highest vs. lowest category or the lowest vs. middle category. For the highest SUA, eleven studies with 172,123 participants were identified and analyzed. Elevated SUA increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.09-1.42) and cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.19-1.57). Subgroup analyses showed that elevated SUA significantly increase the risk of all-cause mortality among men (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.42), but not in women (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.79-1.39). Risk of cardiovascular mortality appeared to be more pronounced among women (RR 1.35; 95% CI 1.06-1.72). The association between extremely low SUA and mortality was reported in three studies; we did not perform a pooled analysis because of high degree of heterogeneity in these studies. Baseline SUA level is an independent predictor for future cardiovascular mortality. Elevated SUA appears to significantly increase the risk of all-cause mortality in men, but not in women. Whether low SUA levels are predictors of mortality is still inconclusive.