Biochemical and biophysical research communications

The thiol proteinase inhibitor E-64-d ameliorates amyloid-β-induced reduction of sAPPα secretion by reversing ceramide-induced protein kinase C down-regulation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

PMID 24141119


In Alzheimer's disease (AD), enhancing α-secretase processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an important pathway to decrease neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ) secretion. The α-secretase is reported to be regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) and various endogenous proteins or cell surface receptors. In this report, we first examined whether Aβ reduces α-secretase activity, and showed that Aβ peptide 1-40 (0.001 and 0.01 μM) reduced the secretion of soluble amyloid precursor protein α (sAPPα) in carbachol-stimulated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. E-64-d (3 μM), which is a potent calpain inhibitor that prevents PKC degradation, ameliorated the Aβ-induced reduction of sAPPα secretion. In addition, we observed that Aβ significantly enhanced ceramide production by activating neutral sphingomyelinase. The cell-permeable ceramide analog, C2-ceramide (1 μg/mL), also reduced sAPPα secretion, and in addition, E-64-d eliminated the observed decrease of sAPPα secretion. C2-ceramide induced down-regulation of PKC-α, -β1, and -β2 isozymes in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest that ceramide may play an important role in sAPPα processing by modulating PKC activity.