Eating behaviors

Effect of nicotine patch on energy intake and weight gain in postmenopausal women during smoking cessation.

PMID 24183127


Post-cessation weight gain is a commonly cited barrier to smoking cessation. Some evidence suggests that nicotine replacement therapy may limit post-cessation weight gain by reducing energy intake. This project aims to assess differential changes in energy intake and body weight during smoking cessation in a sample of postmenopausal women randomized to receive 21 mg nicotine or placebo patch for 12 weeks. Postmenopausal women who smoked ≥10 cigarettes/day were enrolled in this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Total energy intake (via four-day food diaries), body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), cigarettes/day and smoking status (self-report verified by exhaled carbon monoxide) were assessed at three time points: 2 weeks prior to quit date, 12 weeks after quit date, and 12 months after smoking cessation treatment. Participants (n = 119) were, on average, 55.8 ± 6.7 years old with a baseline BMI of 27.0 ± 5.2 and average cigarette/day was 21.1 ± 8.6. At Week 12, participants randomized to nicotine patch increased their mean caloric intake by 146.4 ± 547.7 kcal/day whereas those on placebo patch decreased their caloric intake by 175.3 ± 463.2 (f-value = 10.1, p-value = 0.002). Despite the differences in caloric intake, body weight remained similar between groups. The results of this study indicate that nicotine patch may increase energy intake during treatment, and does not prevent post-cessation weight gain in postmenopausal smokers. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and assess whether different forms of nicotine replacement therapy influence caloric intake and post-cessation weight gain in postmenopausal smokers.