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The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Pharmacological characterization of a dopamine transporter ligand that functions as a cocaine antagonist.


PMID 24194528

Abstract

An N-butyl analog of benztropine, JHW007 [N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropane], binds to dopamine transporters (DAT) but has reduced cocaine-like behavioral effects and antagonizes various effects of cocaine. The present study further examined mechanisms underlying these effects. Cocaine dose-dependently increased locomotion, whereas JHW007 was minimally effective but increased activity 24 hours after injection. JHW007 (3-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently and fully antagonized the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine (5-60 mg/kg), whereas N-methyl and N-allyl analogs and the dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitor GBR12909 [1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine dihydrochloride] stimulated activity and failed to antagonize effects of cocaine. JHW007 also blocked the locomotor-stimulant effects of the DAT inhibitor GBR12909 but not stimulation produced by the δ-opioid agonist SNC 80 [4-[(R)-[(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl](3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide], which increases activity through nondopaminergic mechanisms. JHW007 blocked locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine in both DA D2- and CB1-receptor knockout and wild-type mice, indicating a lack of involvement of these targets. Furthermore, JHW007 blocked effects of cocaine on stereotyped rearing but enhanced stereotyped sniffing, suggesting that interference with locomotion by enhanced stereotypies is not responsible for the cocaine-antagonist effects of JHW007. Time-course data indicate that administration of JHW007 antagonized the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine within 10 minutes of injection, whereas occupancy at the DAT, as determined in vivo, did not reach a maximum until 4.5 hours after injection. The σ1-receptor antagonist BD 1008 [N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine dihydrobromide] blocked the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine. Overall, these findings suggest that JHW007 has cocaine-antagonist effects that are deviate from its DAT occupancy and that some other mechanism, possibly σ-receptor antagonist activity, may contribute to the cocaine-antagonist effect of JHW007 and like drugs.