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mBio

Sp100 provides intrinsic immunity against human papillomavirus infection.


PMID 24194542

Abstract

Most DNA viruses associate with, and reorganize, nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies upon entry into the host nucleus. In this study, we examine the roles of the ND10 components PML, Sp100, and Daxx in the establishment of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) infection of primary human keratinocytes. HPV18 DNA or HPV18 quasivirus was introduced into primary human keratinocytes depleted of each ND10 protein by small interfering RNA technology, and genome establishment was determined by using a quantitative immortalization assay and measurements of viral transcription and DNA replication. Keratinocyte depletion of Sp100 resulted in a substantial increase in the number of HPV18-immortalized colonies and a corresponding increase in viral transcription and DNA replication. However, Sp100 repressed viral transcription and replication only during the initial stages of viral establishment, suggesting that Sp100 acts as a repressor of incoming HPV DNA. The intrinsic immune system provides a first-line defense against invading pathogens. Host cells contain nuclear bodies (ND10) that are important for antiviral defense, yet many DNA viruses localize here upon cell entry. However, viruses also disrupt, reorganize, and modify individual components of the bodies. In this study, we show that one of the ND10 components, Sp100, limits the infection of human skin cells by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPVs are important pathogens that cause many types of infection of the cutaneous and mucosal epithelium and are the causative agents of several human cancers. Understanding how host cells counteract HPV infection could provide insight into antimicrobial therapies that could limit initial infection.