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Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology

Characterization of a marine-derived dextranase and its application to the prevention of dental caries.


PMID 24197466

Abstract

The dextranase added in current commercial dextranase-containing mouthwashes is largely from fungi. However, fungal dextranase has shown much higher optimum temperature than bacterial dextranase and relatively low activity when used in human oral cavities. Bacterial dextranase has been considered to be more effective and suitable for dental caries prevention. In this study, a dextranase (Dex410) from marine Arthrobacter sp. was purified and characterized. Dex410 is a 64-kDa endoglycosidase. The specific activity of Dex410 was 11.9 U/mg at optimum pH 5.5 and 45 °C. The main end-product of Dex410 was isomaltotriose, isomaltoteraose, and isomaltopentaose by hydrolyzing dextran T2000. In vitro studies showed that Dex410 effectively inhibited the Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth in coverage, biomass, and water-soluble glucan (WSG) by more than 80, 90, and 95 %, respectively. The animal experiment revealed that for short-term use (1.5 months), both Dex410 and the commercial mouthwash Biotene (Laclede Professional Products, Gardena, CA, USA) had a significant inhibitory effect on caries (p = 0.0008 and 0.0001, respectively), while for long-term use (3 months), only Dex410 showed significant inhibitory effect on dental caries (p = 0.005). The dextranase Dex410 from a marine-derived Arthrobacter sp. strain possessed the enzyme properties suitable to human oral environment and applicable to oral hygiene products.