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Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology

RF-magnetron sputtered kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film using single quaternary sputtering target prepared by sintering process.


PMID 24245324

Abstract

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film applicable to an absorber material in compound thin film solar cells was deposited by a single quaternary sputtering target containing four components--Cu, Zn, Sn, and S-and its material properties were investigated. A single quaternary sputtering target was fabricated by sequential powder mixing/ball milling, pressure moulding, and a sintering process. An as-fabricated pellet or sputter target sintered at 500 degrees C-700 degrees C showed relevant peaks associated with CZTS phases. However, acceptable density as a sputter target (> 90% of ideal density) was attained up to a sintering temperature of only 500 degrees C due to thermal expansion. Unlike other metallic precursor approaches, there was no volume expansion after sulfurization. The sulfurized CZTS film contained CZTS phases including some secondary phases such as SnS or SnS2 depending on the film thickness. This result was attributed to the different sputtering yields of the constituents in the sputter target. Optical E(g) decreased with increasing deposition time. The E(g) attained was 1.488 eV, well-matched to the reported CZTS data. The carrier concentration, resistivity, and mobility of the CZTS film were 1.29 x 10(17) cm(-3), 1.2 x 10(-1) omega x cm and 5.44 cm(-3) N x sec, respectively, showing suitability for absorber layer applications.