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PloS one

Clinical significance of frizzled homolog 3 protein in colorectal cancer patients.


PMID 24255701

Abstract

Frizzled homolog 3 receptor was up-regulated in several gastrointestinal cancers such as esophageal and gastric cancers. Moreover, frizzled homolog 3 has recently reported to be expressed in colorectal adenoma specimens. In the present study, we investigated the clinical significance of frizzled homolog 3 protein in colorectal cancer patients. Using immunocytochemical staining, frizzled homolog 3 expression was examined in 186 colorectal cancer specimens, 79 colorectal adenoma specimens, 133 colorectal polyp specimens, 127 colorectal cancer specimens with lymph node and/or distant metastasis, 310 specimens of various non-colorectal cancer metastatic carcinomas and 40 specimens with simultaneous occurrence of colorectal cancer, colorectal adenoma and colorectal polyp. Statistical analysis was used to correlate frizzled homolog 3 protein expression to the clinicohistopathological factors, recurrence/metastasis and survival after follow-up for 42 months in colorectal cancer patients. Frizzled homolog 3 protein was expressed in 100% colorectal cancer specimens, 89% colorectal adenoma specimens, 75% colorectal polyp specimens and 69% normal colorectal epithelial tissues. Moreover, frizzled homolog 3 immunocytochemical scores were highly correlated with colorectal cancer progression. Furthermore, frizzled homolog 3 was expressed in a comparatively lower percentage of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma with focal and very weak staining than other metastatic tumor types. On the other hand, the frizzled homolog 3 immunocytochemical scores of colorectal adenomas with synchronous colorectal carcinomas were significantly higher than those of pure colorectal adenomas. Statistical analysis showed that frizzled homolog 3 immunocytochemical scores were associated with Dukes stage and lymph node status. Finally, stratified groups of colorectal cancer patients had significant differences in their recurrence/metastasis and survival. In conclusion, the present large-scale study has clearly showed that frizzled homolog 3 protein can generate clinically important information for colorectal cancer patients.