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Biochemistry

Identification of proximal and distal axial ligands in Leishmania major pseudoperoxidase.


PMID 24261670

Abstract

Previous optical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies of the newly discovered peroxynitrite scavenging pseudoperoxidase from Leishmania major (LmPP) suggested that ferric LmPP contained a six-coordinate low-spin (6cLS) heme with a thiolate ligand, presumably a cysteine, bound to its heme iron. To identify the axial ligands of LmPP, we exploit a systematic mutational analysis of potential heme ligands. On the basis of UV-visible and EPR spectroscopy, we report that the substitution of the proximal His206 with alanine in LmPP alters the 6cLS to a five-coordinate high spin (5cHS) form at pH 4.0 that has a spectrum characteristic of a Cys-ligated 5cHS derivative. The electronic absorption and EPR analysis of all alanine-substituted Cys and Met single mutants establish that when Cys107 is replaced with alanine, a new species appears that has a spectrum characteristic of a histidine-ligated 5cHS derivative at pH 4.0. Together, these results suggest that His206 and Cys107 act as the proximal and distal axial ligands in ferric LmPP, respectively. However, the electronic properties of reduced wild-type LmPP are similar to those of known 5cHS His-ligated heme proteins at pH 8.8, indicating that the thiolate bond was broken upon reduction. Furthermore, the wild-type protein was only partially reduced at pH 4.0, but the E105L mutant was completely reduced to form a 5cHS ferrous heme. These results imply that the presence of an acidic residue near the distal site may prevent reduction of the heme iron at acidic pH.

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