EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Biochimica et biophysica acta

Aquaglyceroporins: generalized metalloid channels.


PMID 24291688

Abstract

Aquaporins (AQPs), members of a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins, are ubiquitous in all domains of life. They fall into a number of branches that can be functionally categorized into two major sub-groups: i) orthodox aquaporins, which are water-specific channels, and ii) aquaglyceroporins, which allow the transport of water, non-polar solutes, such as urea or glycerol, the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and, as described in this review, metalloids. This review summarizes the key findings that AQP channels conduct bidirectional movement of metalloids into and out of cells. As(OH)3 and Sb(OH)3 behave as inorganic molecular mimics of glycerol, a property that allows their passage through AQP channels. Plant AQPs also allow the passage of boron and silicon as their hydroxyacids, boric acid (B(OH)3) and orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), respectively. Genetic analysis suggests that germanic acid (GeO2) is also a substrate. While As(III), Sb(III) and Ge(IV) are toxic metalloids, borate (B(III)) and silicate (Si(IV)) are essential elements in higher plants. The uptake of environmental metalloids by aquaporins provides an understanding of (i) how toxic elements such as arsenic enter the food chain; (ii) the delivery of arsenic and antimony containing drugs in the treatment of certain forms of leukemia and chemotherapy of diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa; and (iii) the possibility that food plants such as rice could be made safer by genetically modifying them to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

266329
Antimony, powder, -100 mesh, 99.5% trace metals basis
Sb
GF72464834
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF17616214
Antimony, rod, 6mm, diameter 6mm, 99.999%
Sb
GF72466803
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF20324865
Antimony, rod, 25mm, diameter 2.0mm, 99.99%
Sb
GF76817616
Antimony, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 2mm, hot-pressed
Sb
GF15127961
Antimony, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF34540185
Antimony, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF97030403
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF90469884
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF45762789
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF89164873
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.002mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF16935396
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.005mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF83770094
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF83929674
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF04779894
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.002mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF07563203
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.005mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF66083362
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF46574220
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF16928310
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb
GF87764013
Antimony, microfoil, 25x25mm, thinness 0.5μm, specific density 334.5μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 95+%
Sb
GF70501788
Antimony, microfoil, 50x50mm, thinness 0.5μm, specific density 334.5μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 95+%
Sb
GF59022592
Antimony, rod, 15mm, diameter 2.0mm, 99.99%
Sb
GF96258437
Antimony, rod, 20mm, diameter 4.7mm, 99.999%
Sb
GF87920343
Antimony, rod, 50mm, diameter 2.0mm, 99.99%
Sb
GF01771118
Antimony, rod, 50mm, diameter 4.7mm, 99.999%
Sb
GF97807427
Antimony, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 95+%
Sb