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Antioxidants & redox signaling

Insight into protein S-nitrosylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.


PMID 24328795

Abstract

Protein S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification (PTM) consisting of the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO) to a cysteine thiol moiety, plays a major role in cell signaling and is recognized to be involved in numerous physiological processes and diseases in mammals. The importance of nitrosylation in photosynthetic eukaryotes has been less studied. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge on protein nitrosylation by performing a large-scale proteomic analysis of proteins undergoing nitrosylation in vivo in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells under nitrosative stress. Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 492 nitrosylated proteins were identified. They participate in a wide range of biological processes and pathways, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, translation, protein folding or degradation, cell motility, and stress. Several proteins were confirmed in vitro by western blot, site-directed mutagenesis and activity measurements. Moreover, 392 sites of nitrosylation were also identified. These results strongly suggest that S-nitrosylation could constitute a major mechanism of regulation in C. reinhardtii under nitrosative stress conditions. This study constitutes the largest proteomic analysis of protein nitrosylation reported to date. The identification of 381 previously unrecognized targets of nitrosylation further extends our knowledge on the importance of this PTM in photosynthetic eukaryotes. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange repository with identifier PXD000569.