British journal of clinical pharmacology

Cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein drug-drug interactions with voclosporin.

PMID 24330024


Voclosporin is a novel calcineurin inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between voclosporin and a CYP3A inhibitor, inducer and substrate and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor and substrate were evaluated. Voclosporin 0.4 mg kg(-1) was administered to 24 subjects in each of five studies, as follows: every 12 h (Q12H) alone and concomitantly with ketoconazole 400 mg once daily (QD); single dose before and single dose after rifampin 600 mg QD; Q12H where midazolam 7.5 mg was administered as a single dose alone before voclosporin and with last the dose of voclosporin; Q12H alone and concomitantly with verapamil 80 mg every 8 h; and Q12H with digoxin 0.25 mg QD. The noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters maximal concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were obtained, and geometric least squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals were evaluated. Ketoconazole increased voclosporin Cmax (6.4-fold) and AUC (18-fold); rifampin reduced voclosporin AUC (0.9-fold); voclosporin did not change exposure of midazolam or α-hydroxy-midazolam; verapamil increased voclosporin Cmax (2.1-fold) and AUC (2.7-fold); and voclosporin increased digoxin Cmax (0.5-fold), AUC (0.25-fold) and urinary excretion (0.2-fold). Administration of voclosporin concomitantly with strong inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A resulted in increased and decreased exposures, respectively, and should be considered contraindicated. Drug-drug interactions involving voclosporin and CYP3A substrates are not expected. Administration of voclosporin concomitantly with inhibitors and substrates of P-glycoprotein resulted in increased voclosporin and substrate exposures, respectively. Appropriate concentration and safety monitoring is recommended with co-administration of voclosporin and P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors.