Randomized comparison of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate vs emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B.

PMID 24368224


Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is active against lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but data to support its clinical efficacy in this setting are limited. In a prospective, double-blind, 96-week trial, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups given TDF (300 mg, n = 141) or a combination of emtricitabine (FTC, 200 mg; n = 139) and TDF (300 mg, FTC/TDF). Patients were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive or HBeAg-negative, with levels of HBV DNA ≥3 log10 IU/mL and lamivudine resistance mutations (HBV polymerase or reverse transcriptase amino acid substitutions rtM204I/V ± rtL180M by INNO-LiPA Multi-DR v3; Innogenetics, Inc, Alpharetta, GA). The primary end point was proportion with HBV DNA <69 IU/mL (Roche COBAS Taqman assay; Roche Molecular Systems, Inc, Pleasanton, CA). Patient groups were well matched for demographic and disease characteristics, including region (60% from Europe), HBV genotype (45% genotype D), HBeAg status (47% HBeAg-positive), and duration of lamivudine treatment (mean, 3.8 years). At week 96 of treatment, 89.4% of patients in the TDF group and 86.3% in the FTC/TDF group had levels of HBV DNA <69 IU/mL (P = .43). HBeAg loss and seroconversion did not differ between groups; only 1 patient (0.7%) in the FTC/TDF group lost hepatitis B surface antigen. Treatment was well tolerated; confirmed renal events (creatinine increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL [>44 umol/L], creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, or level of PO4 <2 mg/dL [<0.65 mmol/L]) were generally mild and infrequent (<1%). Small reductions (<2%) in mean bone mineral density of hip and spine were detected by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in both groups. No TDF resistance developed through 96 weeks of treatment. TDF alone is safe and effective for treatment of patients with lamivudine-resistant, chronic HBV infection. Clinical No, NCT00737568.