Stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates distraction osteogenesis through multiple regenerative mechanisms.

PMID 24389414


Distraction osteogenesis (DO) successfully induces large-scale skeletal tissue regeneration, but it involves an undesirably long treatment period. A high-speed DO mouse model (H-DO) with a distraction speed twice that of a control DO model failed to generate new bone callus in the distraction gap. Here we demonstrate that the local administration of serum-free conditioned medium from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) accelerated callus formation in the mouse H-DO model. Secretomic analysis identified factors contained in MSC-CM that recruit murine bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) and endothelial cells/endothelial progenitor cells (EC/EPCs), inhibit inflammation and apoptosis, and promote osteoblast differentiation, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Functional assays identified MCP-1/-3 and IL-3/-6 as essential factors in recruiting mBMSCs and EC/EPCs. IL-3/-6 also enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of mBMSCs. MSC-CM that had been depleted of MCP-1/-3 failed to recruit mBMSCs, and consequently failed to promote callus formation. Taken together, our data suggest that MSCs produce a broad repertoire of trophic factors with tissue-regenerative activities that accelerate healing in the DO process.