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Drug and chemical toxicology

Genotoxic response and oxidative stress induced by diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen in Daphnia magna.


PMID 24393029

Abstract

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used pharmaceuticals in Mexico, but there is not proper regulation on the sale, use and disposal. These drugs can enter water bodies by diverse pathways, attaining significant concentrations and inducing damage on hydrobionts. To evaluate the oxidative stress and consequent damage to genetic material induced by DCF, IBP and NPX on Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity assays were performed to 48-h by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs evaluated. A sublethal assay were done after 48 h of exposure to DCF, IBP and NPX added to water with the concentration equivalent to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), 9.7 mg/L for DCF, 2.9 mg/L for IBP and 0.017 mg/L for NPX. The DNA damage (comet assay) was evaluated at 12, 48 and 96 h. The oxidative biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation; protein carbonyl content; activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. D. magna exposed to DCF, IBP and NPX showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with respect to controls in LPX. PCC was increased in IBP exposure. SOD and CAT activity were increased by exposure to IBP and NPX. GPX shows a significant increase with respect to control in IBP and DCF exposure and significant decrease by NPX exposure. DNA damage was observed in 48 and 96 h. DCF, IBP and NPX were responsible of alterations in biochemical biomarkers evaluated and DNA damage.